Elizabeth Parks and Kiah Bennett’s article published in International Journal of Listening

Assistant Professor Elizabeth Parks and Ph.D. student Kiah Bennett have published the article “A transcription system for nonverbal listening behavior” in International Journal of Listening.


Nonverbal communication behavior is central to the communicative performance of listening. Yet listening scholarship has primarily been grounded in exploring the verbal behaviors associated with listening to the neglect of the systematic exploration of nonverbal listening behaviors in these same communicative moments. This is likely in part due to the lack of a standardized methodical approach to transcribing nonverbal discourse. In this study, we take initial steps to remedy this methodological lacunae. We first compare approaches to verbal transcription and nonverbal coding that might be adopted by communication scholars interested in nonverbal discourse in general. We then offer an initial transcription framework that incorporates previous approaches and innovates new ones that can be used to transcribe listening nonverbal discourse in particular. We conclude with a brief example of how this could be used to further our understanding of diverse listening practices and opportunities for future research. Our ultimate aim is to propose a culturally inclusive way to transcribe nonverbal listening discourse with which discourse analysts and listening scholars can intentionally and effectively include nonverbal listening behaviors as central to their communication research.